精品推荐:清代酱釉鸟食罐

【藏品名称】:清代酱釉鸟食罐

[collection name]: Sauce glazed bird food pot in Qing Dynasty

【藏品类别】:瓷器

[collection type]: porcelain

【藏品简介】:鸟食罐最讲究成堂配套,有二罐一套、三罐一套、四罐一套或五罐一套的。南方对鸟笼中用于装饰插花(有的地方也用于喂食,如成都地区蓄养桐花凤就用小花瓶喂食蜂蜜)的小花瓶颇多讲究,不同的鸟笼配不同形状、大小的花瓶,与食罐、水罐配为一套,观之极为雅致。有人曾就过眼的清代鸟笼小花瓶做过统计,仅就所见的各种大小各种形状的就达30几种。鸟食罐有素胎和花胎之分,素胎以釉色相区别,清代的素胎即单色釉鸟食罐种类繁多,见于记载的有胭脂水、朱砂红、苹果绿、鹅蛋黄、雨过天青、松绿、霁红、霁蓝、月白、影青、蓝钧釉、紫钧釉,等等,名目繁多。素胎中白釉鸟食罐亦不少,对此一说为单色釉中的一个品种,称为元霄白;一说讲究的人家家中如遇丧事或国丧之日,鸟笼中须换成白色的鸟食罐,否则即有不敬之嫌,故白釉鸟食罐又称为“孝罐”。

[introduction to the collection]: bird food cans are the most exquisite in matching, including two cans, three cans, four cans or five cans. The South pays much attention to the small flower bottles used for decorative flower arrangement in bird cages (some places are also used for feeding. For example, tonghuafeng in Chengdu uses small vases to feed honey). Different bird cages are equipped with vases of different shapes and sizes, which are matched with food cans and water cans, which is extremely elegant. Some people have made statistics on the bird cages and small vases of the Qing Dynasty. There are more than 30 kinds of birds of all sizes and shapes. There are two kinds of bird food cans: plain embryo and flower embryo. Plain embryo is distinguished by glaze color. There are many kinds of plain embryo, i.e. monochrome glaze bird food cans in the Qing Dynasty. They are recorded in Rouge water, cinnabar red, apple green, goose egg yellow, sky green after rain, pine green, Ji red, Ji blue, moon white, shadow green, blue Jun glaze, purple Jun glaze, etc. There are also many white glazed bird food cans in plain embryo, which is said to be a variety of monochrome glaze, called yuanxiao white; If there is a funeral or national funeral in a fastidious family, the bird cage must be replaced with a white bird food pot, otherwise it is disrespectful. Therefore, the white glazed bird food pot is also called "filial piety pot".

 

花胎是清代鸟食罐的一大特色,除传统的青花之外,又出现了五彩,斗彩、粉彩、墨彩、青花釉里红、描金等新的装饰手法。创作题材亦极为广泛,举凡历史故事、神话传说、山水人物、花鸟鱼虫、博古图案、吉祥纹饰等均可入画,常见的如花卉、鱼藻、鸟禽、龙凤、云幅、云鹤、灵芝、八宝、杂宝、瑞兽、婴戏、仙佛、马等纹饰。

Flower embryo is a major feature of bird food cans in the Qing Dynasty. In addition to the traditional blue and white, there are new decorative techniques such as colorful, fighting color, pink, ink color, blue and white underglaze red, gold painting and so on. There are also a wide range of creative themes, including historical stories, myths and legends, landscape characters, flowers, birds, fish and insects, Bogu patterns, auspicious patterns, etc. common patterns such as flowers, fish algae, birds, dragons and phoenixes, cloud frames, cloud cranes, Ganoderma lucidum, eight treasures, miscellaneous treasures, auspicious animals, infant drama, immortal Buddha, horses, etc,

 

图案大都包含种种美好的寓意。明清时我国装饰图案已发展到“图必有意,意必吉样”"的境地,充满着中国文化的特殊韵味,如石榴象征多子,牡丹象征富贵,蝙蝠象征多福,灵芝象征长寿又象征如意,葡萄象征子孙繁衍,鱼寓意年年有余,等等,在鸟食罐上均有反映。清代鸟食罐的最精彩之处在其画工。

Most of the patterns contain all kinds of beautiful meanings. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, China's decorative patterns have developed to "the picture must be intentional and the meaning must be auspicious" "The situation is full of the special charm of Chinese culture. For example, pomegranate symbolizes many children, peony symbolizes wealth, bat symbolizes happiness, Ganoderma lucidum symbolizes longevity and wishful thinking, grape symbolizes offspring reproduction, fish symbolizes surplus every year, and so on, which are reflected in bird food cans. The most wonderful thing about bird food cans in the Qing Dynasty is their painting,

 

有的绘制工细,一絲不苟;有的抽象写意,灵动飘逸。其中最贵重者一为名家绘制,如清末民初著名瓷画大师王步(1898-1968年),早年就曾在景德镇画鸟食罐为生,晚清瓷画名家俞子明都曾参与鸟食罐的绘制。既为名家绘制,必精选器形好、胎质好的鸟食罐再施以手绘,故这类鸟食罐都有形态规整,釉质润泽,画工精美的特点,令人过目难忘。另一为主家定制之物,由主家出高价延聘名匠精心制作,作品须达到主家种种苛刻的要求,费工费时,在所不计,这样的作品当然是百里挑一、千里挑一。鸟食罐为鸟笼配套之物,更为讲究的还要求上面的图案纹饰与禽鸟、鸟笼相互呼应配合。画眉好打斗,属武鸟,画眉笼上就雕刻三国故事,再于鸟食缸上绘制三国故事场景,如三英战吕布、千里走单骑、夜战马超等;靛颏文静秀雅,归于文鸟,靛颏缸即绘西厢、红楼人物场景;绣眼活泼俏丽,文人多爱蓄养,则在绣眼笼和鸟食缸上雕刻、绘制反映文人趣味追求的琴棋书画、五子登科、岁寒三友等。鸟、笼、缸相互呼应,共为一体,极大地增添了养鸟赏鸟的情趣和艺术性。遗憾的是,现在这样又有韵味的老笼老缸,已经是少之又少了

Some drawings are meticulous and meticulous; Some are abstract and freehand, flexible and elegant. One of the most valuable paintings is by famous artists. For example, Wang Bu, a famous master of porcelain painting in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China (1898-1968), painted bird food cans in Jingdezhen in his early years, and Yu Ziming, a famous porcelain painter in the late Qing Dynasty, participated in the painting of bird food cans. Since it is drawn by famous artists, it is necessary to select bird food cans with good shape and good fetal quality, and then draw them by hand. Therefore, these bird food cans have the characteristics of regular shape, moist glaze and exquisite painting, which are unforgettable. On the other hand, the owner hires famous craftsmen at a high price to make the custom-made things for the owner. The works must meet the owner's harsh requirements, which takes time and labor. Of course, such works are one in a hundred or one in a thousand. The bird food jar is a supporting item for the bird cage. What's more, it requires that the patterns and decorations on it echo and cooperate with the birds and bird cage. The thrush likes fighting and belongs to a martial bird. The story of the Three Kingdoms is carved on the thrush cage, and then the story scenes of the three kingdoms are drawn on the bird food tank, such as three British war against Lv Bu, thousands of miles walking solo, night war with Ma Chao, etc; The indigo chin is quiet and elegant, which belongs to the literati bird. The indigo chin jar is the scene of figures in the west chamber and the red chamber; Embroidered eyes are lively and beautiful, and scholars love to keep them. They carve and draw piano, chess, calligraphy and painting, five sons to ascend the throne, three friends in the winter, etc. on embroidered eye cages and bird food tanks to reflect the interests of scholars. Birds, cages and VATS echo each other and form a whole, which greatly increases the interest and artistry of raising and watching birds. Unfortunately, there are few old cages and jars with such charm now